The Story starts with the Bab…
The Bab was affected by the views of Shaikhiyah since his childhood. His school teacher was a follower of the Shaikhiyah sect. Bab also lived for a few months along with Sayed Kazim Rashti. Hence Bab was fully aware of Shaikhiyah belief and was well versed with their religious rites. Bab made his first claim of Babiyat (being the gate) of Hazrat Hujjat (as) on 15th Jamadiul Awwal 1260 AH in front of Mulla Husain Bushrui by which he meant that he was the same gate through which one could reach Imam Mahdi (as) or gain his recognition. Hence he selected the title of ‘Bab’ (gate) for himself. Abbas Effendi has used this title in the same meaning in his book “Maqaleh Shakhsi Siyah” (Traveller’s Narrative).

He wrote that, what he (Bab) meant by the word “Babiyat” that he was the medium or channel between the people and the one who is in occultation (i.e. Imam Mahdi (as) )”.
Ref: Maqaleh Shakhsi Siyah Pg 3-4.

In the beginning Bab claimed ‘Babiyat’ in his book “Tafseer-e-Surah Yusuf” which he claimed to be his first revelation. Bab wrote regarding Surah Mulk (the first surah of this book), “Allah has decreed to reveal ‘Tafseer of Surah Yusuf’ from Mohammed bin Hasan bin Ali bin ..................bin Abi Talib to his servant, Mirza Ali Mohammed (Bab) so that his proof or signs could be established for the people”.
Ref: Raheeqe Makhtoom Pg 22

At different places in that book, Bab used various titles for Hazrat Hujjat bin Hasan and willed to be sacrificed in his way. Just pay the attention to the following sentences of his book:
“Oh Baqiyatullah! I wish that I may be sacrificed for you. I wish nothing except that I may lay down my life for you!
Ref: Maqaleh Shakhsi Siyah

Even Baha’i teachers have accepted that according to Shia and Shaikhi literature, Baqiyatullah refers to 12th Imam Hazrat Mahdi (as) and by the above words of Bab, people understood that he was very devoted to Imam Mahdi (as) and was eager to sacrifice his life for his sake. Fazil Mazandarani, in his book “Asrarul Aasaar” writes, since the very beginning, Baqiyatullah meant Imam Mahdi (as) and it has come in traditions that he is Baqiyatullah. Therefore Baqiyatullah is the title for the 12th Imam of Shia Ithna Ashari.

At different places, Bab has repeatedly called himself as the servant of Imam Mahdi(as). For example, in Nuqtetul Bayan we find that the Bab says, “Verily I am the servant of Baqiyatullah.”

And is also mentioned in Sahifah Bainal Harmain that the Bab said, “All of you listen to the order of Baqiyatullah.” Thereafter the Bab used this title for himself also, as is mentioned in Sahifeh Makhzuneh as follows: “He (Bab) has used the title ‘Baqiyatullah for himself”.
Ref: Asrarul Aasaar Vol 2 Pg 68-69.

Bab followed the same way of preaching for 4 years and in every book which he has written he has called himself as the gate to the twelfth Imam. It is well known from Shaikhi’s literature that he was the claimant of the deputyship of the twelfth Imam. After 4 years of preaching and after the incident of Badasht where his followers introduced him as ‘The Qaem’- the promised one (12th Imam), he claimed Qaemiyyat in Tabrez.
Ref: Mahdi Satizaan

Therefore whichever book he has written after the incident of Badasht, he has changed his previous claim. In short, books like Bayan Farsi, Bayan Arabic, and Lauh Haikalud Deen and Dalaelus Sab’aa mention this.

Fortunately these books authored by the Bab are available till today. Generally, followers of the Bab were those Shaykhis who believed in his claim of deputyship of Imam Mahdi (as) and were trying to prepare an environment for his re-appearance. Therefore they paid allegiance to him. This was also the reason that many Shaikhis, when they heard the Bab’s claim of Qaemiyyat, they distanced themselves from him and repented. Mulla Abdul Khaliq Yazdi, who was very close to Bab and whose son was killed in Tabrez in an agitation supporting the Bab’s previous claim of deputyship (Babiyat), after hearing Bab’s claim of Qaemiyat moved away from him. He was follwed in this by several other Shaykhis who moved away from Bab due to the opposition of Mulla Abdul Khaliq Yazdi. Its detail can be found in the book Mahdi Satizaan.

This process continued in the next year also. That is, many Bahais who were not knowing that Bab had changed his claim of deputyship and had claimed Qaemiyyat and prophethood; when they learnt of the new claim, they objected to it and moved away from Bab.

Whatever Bab has written in his Tafseere’ Kausar and in all those books which he has written for 12th Imam (as), it can be derived easily that Bab himself was a believer of Imam Mahdi (as). This belief of Baha’is in the Qaemiyyat and Prophethood of Bab raised a lot of objections from every side and different questions were posed from everywhere regarding the position of Bab and the difference in his opinion.

Differences between Bahaullah And Mirza Yahya
After the death of Bab, there was turmoil and panic among the Baha’is. Those people who believed him to be ‘the promised one’ (i.e. Mahdi-e-Maood), realised that Bab could not fulfil the task of reforming the world which was promised by the previous prophets regarding Mahdi-e-Ma’ood. They felt that Bab could not execute the important task of Imam Mahdi, i.e. he could not fill the world with justice and equity and could not form the Universal Islamic Government and could not bring peace and tranquillity in the world as was expected from him. These were the reasons that the ‘Babis’ marched on making the successors of Bab. Babis were divided into different groups in making the successors of Bab.

One group resorted to revolt along with ‘Hujjat Zinjani’ in the city of ‘Zinjan’; another group was devoted to Mulla Ali Tarshizi known as ‘Azeem’. Most of the researchers like Ustad Tabatabai believed that Babis, after the death of Bab, largely assigned the responsibility of leadership of Bab to Mulla Ali Tarshizi. They wanted to spread terror everywhere as a result of which they were arrested by Naseeruddeen Shah, the ruler of that time and was ordered to be executed (put to death). Mirza Husain Ali Noori was along with these people and was arrested along with them and was released on request of the Ambassador of Russia in Iran. ‘Khanam’, the sister of ‘Mirza Husain Ali Noori’, also described the terror which was spread by ‘Mirza Husain Ali Noori’ in her book named as ‘Tanbeehul Naaemeen’.
Ref: Risaleh Tanbeehun Naaemeen Pg 6.

The death of people like Hujjat Zinjani and Mulla Ali Tarshizi (known as ‘Azeem’) prepared the ground for the leadership of Mirza Husain Ali (Baha’ullah) and his brother. During this period, Baha’is believed that Mirza Husain Ali had composed the book of Bab with his own hand in which he has shown to the people that his brother, Mirza Yahya Noori, known as ‘Subhe Azal’ is the successor of Bab. In fact, through this, Bahaullah intended to draw the attention of the people towards ‘Subhe Azal’ so that he could freely organise his own followers and after that as soon as he gets the opportunity, he would claim for the successorship of Bab.
Ref: Maqaleh Shakhsi Siyaah Pg 67-68.

But on the other hand, Azalis, followers of ‘Subhe Azal’ were not ready to believe it. According to them, Bab had already asked his followers to follow Subhe Azal after him and they accused Bahaullah of altering the rules of Bab and of altering the will of Bab without any proof.

There were differences among the followers of Bab after his death. One group believed in following the teachings of the Bab in his book, ‘Al Bayan’ and claimed that after the death of Bab, no one existed who could have a link with the celestial world and therefore their duty was to follow the teaching of the book, ‘Al Bayan’. Since they believed in his book ‘Al Bayan’, these people are known as ‘Bayani’. Another group believed that ‘Subhe Azal’ is the successor of Bab and therefore their duty is to accept him as the successor and submit themselves to his order. These people are known as “Azalis”. Third group believed that Mirza Husain Ali is the” promised one” mentioned in Bayan i.e. he is “Man Yuzherahullahu” (One whom God will manifest).

It is worth noting that every group believed others as fallacious and each one of them has ascribed others with the most obscene, indecent, shameful actions. As for example Bahau’llah has accused his brother Subhe Azal of adultery with the wife of Bab and has written in his book , ‘Badee’ as follows, “Subhe Azal was so shameless that he has forbidden his wife for others after his death whereas he himself had affairs with the wife of Bab. Woe be to him and his followers! .After using her, he gave her to his followers. All Ahle Bayan have heard of it and they know it as well”.
Ref: Badee Pg 379

Bahaullah has used such types of indecent words for his brother, Subhe Azal and has written that: “You should know as to what extent that illegitimate (Subhe Azal) has gone to kill me!”
Ref: Badee Pg 301.

But on the other hand, Azalis, too, has revealed the crimes of Bahaullah and held him responsible for the murder of several people. These differences of two brothers and the killing of several people and insecurity among the people were the causes due to which Usmani Goverment separated both of them. Bahaullah was sent from Akka to Palestine and Subhe Azal was exiled to Tabriz and both of them lived there till the end of their life. We can conclude that Babis did not have common views in selecting their leaders and were divided into different groups.

Differences between Abdul Baha And Mohammed Ali
Mirza Husain Ali, Bahaullah, died on 29 May 1892 (2nd Zilqad, 1309 AH) at the age of 77 in Akka. Followers of Mohammed Ali (brother of Abdul Baha) believe that Bahaullah was not happy with Abdul Baha in the last stages of his life. Therefore he thought of dismissing Abdul Baha and appointing Mohammed Ali as his successor after him. However death perevented Bahaullah from doing so. Therefore followers of Mohammed Ali believed that Bahaullah did not die his natural death.

Mohammed Ali was the son of Bahaullah from his other wife and he was very instrumental in publishing the teaching of Bahaullah during his life as well as after his death to such an extent that most of the writings of Bahaullah such as Kitab-e-Iqan and Aqdas were printed and published due to his efforts. Bahaullah was so confident of Mohammed Ali that he handed over most of his books to Mohammed Ali for proof reading and for editing. In fact Mohammed Ali used to edit or correct the writings of his father, Bahaullah before its publishing.
Ref: Monthly Journal, ‘Gauhar’, 5th Year, issue no 11-12, pg 184, Monthly Journal, ‘Gauhar’, year 4th, issue no 10, Article by ‘Ustad Moheet Tabatabai’ named as ‘Risaleh Khalweeh Yaa Iqan’.

After the death of Bahaullah, differences arose among Mohammed Ali and his brother Abdul Baha. Abdul Baha did not wish that the followers of his father should follow Mohammed Ali. Mohammed Ali too considered himself greater than his brother and did not want to submit to his wishes. Therefore disputes and severe conflicts arose between both the brothers. These conflicts resulted in the exchange of indecent and obscene words between both and ultimately both of them intended to kill each other.
Ref: Alwaah Wisaya Pg 6

In the end Abbas Afandi was successful. He dethroned his brother and gathered the followers of his father around himself.

Position of Abdul Baha in front of Baha’is?
Prophet or the Successor of Prophet?

After dismissing his brother Mohammed Ali from the position of his father, Abdul Baha was compelled to live in Palestine. He lived in the same palace which was offered by the Usmani government to his father. He, like his father, lived for a long time under the protection of Usmani government. After being released from there, he started offering services to the British. For a long time in Palestine, he was serving British Government and was instrumental in establishing the government of Palestine due to which British government offered him the title of “Sir.”
Ref : Bahaiyat Wa Israel Halqehae Ek Zanjeer, 9th issue of ‘the Study of Bahai Religion’

After that he travelled to Europe and America. He came to know the progress of the West during his journey. Abdul Baha then tried to make changes in the teachings of his father in such a way that it should appeal to the sensibilitis of the people in the West (and it should be according to the latest technology /modernization). Hence he altered many things and simply claimed that it was the preaching of his father. He claimed that he himself had collected those teachings and explained it. Teachings like, Wahdate Aalame Insani (Universal world) , Tasawi huqooq Zinan wa Mardum (Equal rights for men and women), Yaqi Shudne Khat wa zaban (one language) – all these teachings were the result of his journeys to Western countries.

Abbas Effendi called himself as Abdul Baha or the ‘Raqeequl Baha.’ Many writers have written about him as follows - “The details about the successorship of Abdul Baha has been mentioned in book ‘Aqdas’ and in the book Ahda” Ref: Qamoos Kitab Aqdas Pg 474

Writers have recorded from Fazil Mazandarani, another preacher of Baha’i that Abbas Effendi claimed the position of Ismat (Infallibility) for himself. He quoted from Abbas Effendi himself as follows - “I am away from sins and mistakes since it would otherwise make the promise of Almighty Allah null and void.” Ref : Qamoos Kitab Aqdas Pg 477

It should be noted that Abbas Effendi acknowledged the need of Infallibility (Ismat) for the position of the representative of Allah and realized that if he rejected the position of infallibility for himself, then in the view of people, he would not be safe from sins or mistakes and then Baha’is would not be confident of him and would not follow him without any if and buts .Abbas Effendi therefore claimed himself as the chosen one of Allah and tried to restrict himself only with the teachings of his father and after a passage of time presented his own views and position to the people.

On the other hand, his father i.e. Bahaullah had claimed the position of ‘Ismat’ (Infallibility) only for himself.
Ref: Ishraqaat Pg 57

This was the reason why Abbas Afandi started explaining his latest theory to the Baha’is by saying that infallibility are of two types:
1) Ismat-e-Zati
2) Ismat-e-Mawhebati

He then said that Ismat-e-Zati was for his father, Bahaullah and he himself possessed Ismat-e-Mawhebati.

Abdul Baha and Baha’is after him did not accept him as a messenger, but rather accepted him as the interpreter of his father’s religion. Shoghi Effendi has written regarding this in his book Daure Bahai Pg 57-58.

Death of Abdul Baha and the leadership of Shoghi Effendi
Abdul Baha died at the age of 80 years in 1340 AH. Although it was asserted that Mohammed Ali, brother of Abdul Baha would be the successor after him, but the hostility between both of them continued till the end of the life of Abdul Baha and therefore he willed in his book “Alwahu Wisaya” that his grandson (son of his daughter), Shoghi Effendi should be appointed as a leader of Bahais after him and he would be rightly called as “Waliye Amrullah.”

Abdul Baha regularized laws and duties for Bahais after him and adopted a special method of appointing Shoghi Effendi as his successor in such a way that he would be rightly called as Wali-e-Amr after him.

» Read Part II

blog comments powered by Disqus

Bookmark and Share | GET RSS


» Bab - Life and Times
» Bab v/s Holy Prophet
» Bab v/s Imam Mahdi
» Key Bahai Teachings
» Bahai Principles Explained
» Bahaullah - Prophet or God?
» Human Equality in Bahais
» Advancing Status of Women
» Fallacy of Gender Equality
» Unreasonableness of The Faith
» Sects of Bahais
» Unity of God - Analysis
» Prophethood - Analysis
» Prophethood in Quran
» Prophethood as per Bahais
» Day of Judgement - Analysis
» Fatwas for Bahais
» Fatwas from Malaysia
» Fatwas from Saudi Arabia
» Fatwas from Iran
» Fatwas from Al Azhar
» More Fatwas - Bahai Faith
» Bahai Census Fraud
» Bahais Are Banned Everywhere
» Bahai Census - Iran
» Bahai Census - India
» Bahai Census - Russia
» UHJ: Failed Prophecy
» Another Failed Prophecy
» Another Missing Prophecy
» 5 Lies of Abdul Baha
» The Shiah Viewpoint
» Name of Imam Mahdi
» Birth of Imam Mahdi
» Books Section
» Videos Section
» (Urdu)
» God Passes By: Analysis
» Traveller's Narrative
» Some Answered Questions
» More Books
» Twelve Bahai Principles
Free online magazine for updates in the Bahai World. Subscribe today!


Aqdas in Hiding?
Bahai Fundamentalism
Understanding Laws


BahaiAwareness on Facebook

» Why This Website
» Readers View
» Give Feedback
» Sitemap