1. Mirza Muhammad Ali (Baha's Most Great Branch)
Entitled the Branch derived from the Ancient Stock; man-astafa- hullah (He Whom God Hath Chosen); Ghusn-i Akbar (the Most Great Branch). His sons: Shuaullah, Muhammad Amin, and Musa. His partisans are called Ahlul-Tawhid or Muwahaddin (Unitarians). Muhammad Ali and his sons as well as his partisans were EXCOMMUNICATED by Abdul Baha Abbas. For this reason he is called Naqiz-i Akbar (Arch Covenant-Breaker or Violator) and Markaz-i Naqs (the Centre of Sedition) by Abdul Baha Abbas and his partisans. For the same reason, Muhammad Ali’s partisans were called Naqizin (covenant-breakers or Violators) or Mutezalzelin (Vacillators).

Abbas Effendi’s Treatment of Mirza Muhammad Ali
Payam-i Pedar PP. 102-183 and 114 : "On another occasion "Abdul Baha’s son-in-law Mirza Jalal" and others on their way to Baha’s tomb ran into Muhammad Ali. "they made gratuitous remarks against him and took liberties with him." Such incidents were not infrequent. PP. 104-105: In his meetings attended by his followers exclusively, Abdul Baha Abbas would dilate on the "bad conduct" of his brother Muhammad Ali and his adherents to the "delectation" of his audience and would "work up feelings of his followers against them. Apprehensive of the dissemination of Muhammad Ali’s utterances among Bahais, Abdul Baha Abbas, would sound the alarm that such utterances "were infected with poison which would work into one’s system" and affect if not afflict, any person however strong and robust one may be. He would say "he had seen Muhammad Ali flirting with a girl".


2. Ibrahim George Khayrullah
Dr. Ibrahim George Khayrullah was the pioneer who flagged the trail for Bahai faith in the United States, and touted for converts there. When he visited sir Abbas Effendi at Acre, he was hailed by him as "Baha's Peter", and shepherd of god's flock in America. The visit was instructive and informative, Mr. I.J.K was not impressed by Sir Abbas Effendi’s interpretations of Baha's sacred texts. In his views, Sir Abbas Effendi sanctioned deceit and practised duplicity. On his return to the United States, Mr I.J.K transferred his allegiance from Sir Abbas Effendi to Mirza Muhammad Ali. (Material for the Study of B?Bi Religion by Prof. Browne, PP. 93-112.)

According to Dr. Mirza Muhammad Khan the author of Tarikh-al-B?Biyya, Aw Miftah - B?B-al-Abwab, Mr I.J.K (Materials, ibid, PP.143-146) found a lucrative business in his outwardly spiritual and inwardly eleemosynary mission in the furtherance of Baha's pretensions in America, Mirza Hajji Abd-al-Kazim of Teheran, one of the Bahai leaders in Egypt with the approval of Sir Abbas Effendi, was out to have his share of the spoil. Mr I.J.K would not hear of it. Authorised and empowered by Sir Abbas Effendi, Mirza Hajji Abd-al-Kazim of Teheran, proceeded to the United States to call Mr I.J.K to account. These Mr I.J.K gave him the slips, pocketed the spoil, and transferred his allegiance to from Sir Abbas Effendi to Mirza Muhammad Ali.

Undeterred and undaunted by this setback, Sir Abbas Effendi despatched to America (Materials, ibid, PP 154-155) Mirza Hasan of Khurasan, to bring Mr I.G.K back to the fold of Sir Abbas Effendi by fair means or foul, commenting on which in his introduction to the Materials of the study of the BABI Religion, P. x, Prof. Browne observes that "Khayrullah's Narrative (PP. 154-155) of the threats addressed to him on account of his apostasy from [Sir] Abbas Effendi by Mirza Hasan of Khurasan reads like extracts from history of the assassins of Alamut and 'the old man of the Mountain." Mr I.G.K refused to truckle to Sir Abbas Effendi, and stuck to his guns.


3. Mirza Abd-al-Husayn Ayati
Ayati - late Mirza Abd-al- Husayn Ayati embraced Baha’i faith During Sir Abbas Effendi tenure of office, by when he was surnamed Awara. A man of letters, he rose to prominence, and became one of the hands of the cause (Aydi-i Amr). He was held in veneration by Bahais. He was an excellent proselytizer (Muballigh). He served Shoghi Effendi a number of years, and travelled to Europe, at his instance to espouse the cause of Baha’i faith. When he came back from his mission, the abjured Bahai faith and returned to the fold of Islam. He wrote a book entitled Kashf-al-Hiyal of three volumes. He was excommunicated. The book is a hostile critical study of Bahai faith and Bahai history and doctrine. All available copies of the book were bought and suppressed by the Bahais.


4. Mirza Aqa Jan of Kashan (Baha's Close Companion)
This man stuck to Baha through thick and thin. According to the Historical Epitome of Mirza Jawad of Qazwin, whose sister-in-law was married to Muhammad Ali, second son of Baha, P.9 and P.88, Materials for the Study of the BABI Religion by Professor Browne, Mirza Aqa Jan of Kashan was surname by Baha His Honor the Servant of the Presence (Abd-i Hazir) or His Honor the Servant of God (Janab-i Khadimullah). He was amanuensis to Baha. He ranked after the sons of Baha whose followers were commended by him to ‘show honor to the Servant who stands before the throne in a laudable station."

Mirza Aqa Jan identified himself with Baha during the latter period of the Bahai exiles sojourn at Baghdad, and conducted underhand activities in favor of him. When Baha started staled out his pretensions at Edirne he became Baha's amanuensis and wrote his Ishraqiyya in support of Baha's pretensions. He also wrote a tract (Risala), touching the Acre murders, and Baha's arrest and imprisonment. Both these works are in manuscripts.

In acknowledgment of his service he was surnamed "the servant of god," "the servant of the presence," "the servant who stands before God", "the throne in a laudable station" into whom the Bahais were enjoined upon by Baha in a special tablet to show honor."- (Materials for the study of BABI Religion by Browne, P. 9 and P. 88 )

Baha's Epistolary protocol at Acre required that communications addressed to Baha by the Bahais and replies issued from the throne, namely, Baha, should be sent through his amanuensis Mirza Aqa Jan.

After acknowledging the receipt of a petition and stating which it was laid before the throne. Mirza Aqa Jan took a point in the petition, and quoted Baha's reply in the conventional Arabic annotation marks.

After didactic rhetors, appropriate to the occasion, Mirza Aqa Jan took up the next point in the petition, and dealt with Baha's reply in the same manner. This system of treatment continued until the whole petition was processed. In the course of time Bahais came to take for granted that body of such replies, with the exception of their portion or portions quoted in the conventional Arabic quotation marks emanated not from Baha but from Mirza Aqa Jan. Alive is the unfavorable consequences of such an impression, Baha called upon Mirza Aqa Jan to furnish him with an admission in writing that the whole body of such replies emanated not from Mirza Aqa Jan but from Baha.

Such a document Mirza Aqa Jan refused to furnish, and offended with him, Baha would not forgive him unless and until he furnished such a document. Baha passed way with no such document forthcoming. During his tenure of office Sir Abbas Effendi extracted such a document from Mirza Aqa Jan.- (Kitab-i-Subhi by Subhi Fazlullah Muhtadi. PP. 116-123)

As the servant of the presence Mirza Aqa Jan constantly waited on Baha. As Baha's master of ceremonies, he admitted those who desired an audience in parties of from half a dozen to a dozen at stated times. Those audiences did appear to last long as a rule. On reaching the flight of steps to the room where Baha was, the Bahai visitors, and the master of ceremonies who preceded them, prostrated themselves, and entered the room on their knees. (Prof Browne's Art vi, J.R.A.S July 1889, P.519.)

Baha died and Sir Abbas Effendi wore the mantle of the Bahai hierarchy. Differences dissension arose between Sir Abbas Effendi and his half brother Mirza Muhammad Ali. But as the dissension gained momentum, and became acute, Mirza Aqa Jan, a man of standing and experience, thoroughly acquainted and Baha's sacred writings with whom he had been intimately associated from the days of Baghdad, thought that the auspicious time had arrived for him to step in and seek to effect a reconciliation between the two brothers. The occasion was the first anniversary of Baha's death, the Bahais had assembled in a room in the vicinity of Baha's tomb to commemorate him.

Baha's servant of god Mirza Aqa Jan took the floor, broke his long silence, and began to deliver himself of a discourse replete and criticism of the deeds and words of Sir Abbas Effendi and his servants of god on the grounds that they were inconsistent with, and repugnant to, Baha's sacred text.

Acting on tip off from his son-in-law Mirza Hadi Afnan, Shoghi Effendi’s father, Sir Abbas Effendi put in an appearance on the scene, interrupted Mirza Aqa Jan in the middle of his discourse, seized him by the hand and expelled him from the room bare headed and bare-footed, which Sir Abbas Effendi’s servants of god beat Baha's servant of god Mirza Aqa Jan on the head and face.

Maltreated, beaten, imprisoned in a stable, robbed of his books, threatened with strangulation Baha's servant’s of god was excommunicated. (Prof. Browne's materials for the study of the BABI Religion. PP. 87-91; PP. 197-198.)

Thus Mirza Aqa Jan of Kashan, the amanuensis of Baha, to whom he stuck so through thick and thin the servant of god, the servant of presence, the servant of god who stood before the throne in a laudable station, unto whom Bahais were to show honor, privilege, excommunicated and denounced as "reprobate, apostate croaker, hypocrite, and devil," passed to the mercy of god as an outcast.- (Materials, ibid, P. 88.)

According to the Hasht-Bihisht (Chapters on the Elucidation of the Encounters of the calf and Samiri, and on the Elucidation of the Direful Mischief, pp. 301-326, allusion is made to the golden calf which the children of Israel were misled into worshiping. By "the Calf" is meant Baha, by "Samiri" Mirza Aqa Jan of Kashan, designated as the "Scald-headed Soap-Seller of Kashan", who greatly encouraged Baha to stake out his claim to be "He Whom God Shall Manifest’ ." He is also called "The First to believe (in Baha).

Mirza Jawad’s Account
According to Mirza Jawad’s historical Epitome, PP. 87-91, Materials for the study of BABI Religion by Professor Browne, "The Servant of God" passed strictures on Abdul Baha Abbas for his acts and deeds contrary to God’s command." On being informed of the "Servant of God"’s words by Sayyid Hadi the father of Shoghi Effendi, Abdul Baha Abbas "appeared on the scene, seized him by the hand, and expelled him from the house bare-headed and bare footed, while his followers beat him on the head and face."

The "Servant of God" was denounced as "reprobate, apostate, croaker, hypocrite and devil". The Historical Epitome seeks to tone down the incident. The "Servant of God"’s tract entitled ‘The Dreaded Calamity of the Servant of God in the Blessed and Supreme Garden" (Waqaia-i Haila-i Khadim-i Baha dar Rawza-i Mubaraka-i Ulya), PP 197-198, Materials for the Study of the BABI Religion by Professor Browne, contains "an account of the cruel treatment to which the "servant of god" was exposed in the garden of Bahja at Acre in May 1899, at the hands of the partisans of Abdul Baha Abbas. ... "He was grievously maltreated, beaten, imprisoned in a stable, rubbed of his books, threatened with strangulation and EXCOMMUNICATION by the followers of Abdul Baha."


.5. Yar Muhammad (Nabil)
Nabil’s full name was "Yar-Muhammad son of Gulam Ali, son of Hussayn-i-Arab of the village of Zarand, a shepherd by profession." The Dawn Breakers, Nabil's Narrative, P. 434. He was commonly known as Mirza Muhamad Nabil of Zarand, the tongue-tied.

Nabil was Baha's poet laureate. Materials for the Study of B?Bi Religion by Prof. Browne, P.346; PP. 353-351. Nabil was Baha's historian, He wrote Nabil's Narrative, which carries the history of the BABI movement. up to the death of Baha. at Acre in 1892. Shoghi Effendi translated the first half of the narrative closing with the expulsion of Baha from Iran. For reasons not far to seek, Shoghi Effendi did not translate the second half of the work, covering the first half of the work, covering the Baghdad and Edirne periods of the BABI exiles.- Shoghi Effendi’s introduction to the Dawn Breakers, Nabil's Narrative, P. xxxvii.

Nabil's words exist only in manuscript and are not available. In acknowledgment of his services Nabil was surnamed by Baha the Most Great Noble. (The Dawn Breakers - Nabil's Narrative, Index P. 684. )

If Shoghi Effendi is to be credited, Nabil ranked twelfth amongst the apostles of Baha. - The Bahai World, 1928-1930, Vol II PP. 80-91. According to Nabil, during Sir Abbas Effendi term of office the situation at Acre in so far as the Bahais inter se were concerned had become intolerable.-

A Bahai was reburied by Sir Abbas Effendi M
(a) to acknowledge the supremacy of Sir Abbas Effendi over Baha.
(b) to regard Baha's sacred texts as corrupt; and
(c) vilify and excommunicate Baha's surviving wife BiBi Fatima surnamed Supreme cradle by Baha, Sir Abbas Effendi’s half brothers, and other members of the Baha's family, failing which he was accounted a violator of the covenant, and a vacillator.- Baha's youngest son Mirza Badiullah memoirs[1]; Materials for the Study of BABi Religion by Prof. Browne, PP.80 - 80 – 81) P.111.

Apparently Nabil would not submit to the new order and when his request to transfer his residence from Acre to Haifa was turned down by Sir Abbas Effendi, he had no other choice but to take his own life with his own hands.- memoirs:

One year after Baha’s death, Nabil visited Bahaullah in Haifa. He was distressed. Nabil said to Badiullah: "I can no longer stay at Acre. The situation there has deteriorated. By dint of violence, abusive language and cursing, one has to act against his own faith, has to regard and hold the Most Mighty Branch [Ghusn-i Azam, i.e. Abdul Baha Abbas] superior in station to the Blessed Beauty [Janab-i Mubarak, i.e. Baha] has to write corrupted [versions of] all the holly writings and epistles, and has to vilify and excommunicate [Baha’s] sons, [Baha’s] words and [Baha’s] family [i.e. all the members of Baha’s household in opposition to Abdul Baha Abbas], failing which one is branded as covenant-breaker [Naqiz] or Vacillator [Mutezalzil, i.e. opposed to Abdul Baha Abbas and partisan of Muhammad Ali] and becomes the object of untold calumnies and falsehoods." Nabil requested Badiullah to find him a suitable room at the foot of Mount Carmel.

Nabil's Death
Apparently Nabil is the bearer of the Point’s works referred to in Note G. According to Mirza Jawad’s Historical Epitome, P. 25, Materials for the study of the BABi Religion by Prof. Browne" Nabil cast himself into the sea a little while after the death of Baha." According to Kitab-i Subhi, PP. 116-123, Nabil was implicated in the plot to dispose of Mirza Aqa Jan of Kashan by foul play.

According to Kashful-Hiyal Vol. I. P. 75, "Abdul Baha Abbas became on bad terms with Nabil. He cast Nabil into the sea, drowned him with his own hands, or through his partisans, and afterwards spread the rumour that Nabil had drowned himself."

According to the memoirs of Baha’s son Mirza Badiullah surnamed the Most Luminous Branch by Baha: One year after Baha’s death, Nabil visited Bahaullah in Haifa. He was distressed. Nabil said to Badiullah: "I can no longer stay at Acre. The situation there has deteriorated. By dint of violence, abusive language and cursing, one has to act against his own faith, has to regard and hold the Most Mighty Branch [Ghusn-i Azam, i.e. Abdul Baha Abbas] superior in station to the Blessed Beauty [Janab-i Mubarak, i.e. Baha] has to write corrupted [versions of] all the holly writings and epistles, and has to vilify and excommunicate [Baha’s] sons, [Baha’s] words and [Baha’s] family [i.e. all the members of Baha’s household in opposition to Abdul Baha Abbas], failing which one is branded as covenant-breaker [Naqiz] or Vacillator [Mutezalzil, i.e. opposed to Abdul Baha Abbas and partisan of Muhammad Ali] and becomes the object of untold calumnies and falsehoods." Nabil requested Badiullah to find him a suitable room at the foot of Mount Carmel. He went back to Acre to fetch his things. Nothing was heard of him for sometime. Later "limbs of his body and his clothing" were discovered near the see shores at Acre. These were collated together and buried. Abdul Baha Abbas "shed crocodile tears" during the burial service of Nabil, "although he was exceedingly annoyed with him."

"A year had passed (the death of Mirza Husayn-Ali). One day, his honourable mighty Nabil of Zarand had come to Hifa. He was very sad because of the ascension (i.e. the death of Mirza Husayn-Ali). He said that he could not stay in Acre, the situation was very bad. One must by the force of insult and damnation consider the opposed one (i.e Abbas) above the ancient beauty (i.e. Mirza Husayn-Ali), tell (everyone) and write about it and believe in his convictions, whilst the mighty branch (i.e. Abbas) considers the sacred writings and tablets corrupted, excommunicates and libels the branches and the household (of Mirza Husayn-Ali). Failure to do so he would be subject to a thousand lies and slanders. Give me a room in the slope of the Carmel Mountain; I wish to spend the rest of my life alone in the slope of this sacred mountain. It is ready, I said! The mentioned honourable went to Acre to bring his things; it took a while and no news of him reached (us). Later, we heard he was missing for a few days and he was searched for. Later, a person saw on the shore pieces of his body in his cloth. Pieces (of his body) were collected and buried. It is obvious that after returning to Hifa and his plea (to Abbas) for permission, he was tortured to the extent that he had no option but to kill himself."


6. Mirza Muhammad Jawad of Qazwin
Having broken the record in his flight from Tabriz to Edirne he was surnamed by Baha Jawad or Jued (fleet-footed). Mirza Jawad's sister in-law Masuma Khanum was married to Baha's second son Mirza Muhammad Ali, head of the Unitarians. In the schism which succeeded Baha's death Mirza Jawad sided with Mirza Muhammad Ali and took up the cudgels for him.

In the several pamphlets he wrote and published, he criticised the acts and deeds of Sir Abbas Effendi Mirza Jawad's criticism was tantamount to lose - Majesty according to sir Abbas Effendi, by whom he was swept out of the faith at the stroke of the pen.

It would appear that the Bahai faith was the pleasure and one could hold it during sir Abbas Effendi's pleasure. Mirza Jawad's most important accomplishment, was his historical Epitome of the Bahai movement, of the life of Baha. The Historical Epitome was completed in Safar, A.H. 1322 (April, 1904). Originally drafted and approved by Mirza Muhammad Ali, the Historical Epitome was rendered into Arabic by the latter. Prof. Browne translated the Arabic version of the Historical Epitome into English and incorporated it in his Materials For the Study of B?Bi Religion Treatment of the Acre murders in the Historical Epitome exasperated Sir Abbas Effendi who laboured under the miss-apprehension that Bahai history books should be modeled on the lines of "Traveller’s Narrative" written by him anonymously, in he invoked himself for himself in support of his tales in the Narrative. Mirza Muhammad Jawad of Qazwin, who took to his heels from Tabriz to Edirne, for which feat he was surnamed fleet-foot, an accessory before the fact on his own admission passed to the mercy of God, blessed and consecrated by Baha and anathematized by Abdul Baha, the son.


7. Rosamand Dale Owen
She was the author of 'Author of ‘My perilous life in Palestine'. Her statement and accounts are historically correct. In his memoirs, manuscript, typed, pp. 78-81, Ibn-al-Baha Badiullah deals at length with Mrs Rosamond Templeton’s good offices for mediation. Her attempt at mediation or arbitration between two parties aborted as Sir Abbas Effendi backed out of the arrangement at the eleventh hour.


8. Mirza Asadullah, his son Dr Farid and his daughter Mrs Sprague
Mirza Asadullah was married to Sir Abbas Effendi’s sister-in-law, lady Munira’s sister. He had two important assignment: to transport the BAB’s remains from Iran to Haifa, and to conduct Bahai missionary activities in the Unites States. In both assignments he acquitted himself won his spurs.

Later either through his son Dr Farid or independently of him, Mirza Asadullah sought to adopt an independent line for this reason. He fell into disesteem in the eyes of Sir Abbas Effendi. He parted company with Sir Abbas Effendi and proceeded to the United States accompanied by his son-in-law Mr Stewart (sic) and his son by Farid. At the instance of Sir Abbas, Bahais have avoided them. (Al-Kawakib-al-Durriyya, Vol. II, P. 40 by Mirza Abd-al-Husayn Ayati surnamed Awara.)

Mirza Asadullah was held in high esteem as the bearer of remains of the BAB. His successful missionary enterprise in America in espousal of Sir Abbas Effendi’s cause was a feather in his cap. Dr Farid acted as interpreter to Sir Abbas Effendi in his tour of the United States. Like "Baha’s Peter", "Columbus the Second", the "conqueror of America", the "Shepherd of god’s flock in America" Mr I.G.K, they were gently removed out of the way and rendered innocuous. With them disposed of as an expendable commodity and with their meritorious services for the promotion of the master’s cause a thing of the past, the Master applied himself to his now field of operations with its untapped resources, material and spiritual, in the furtherance of his "Divine Plan".


  • What is Excommunication
  • Why does Excommunication takes place?
  • Excommunication in Bahai Faith
  • Why excommunication in Bahai Faith to such an extent?
  • How people are excommunicated in Bahai Faith
  • How to deal with excommunication
  • Excommunication by central figures of the Bahai Faith
  • Narratives of those who left the Faith due to apathy of Bahai Administration

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